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Andrzej Werblan Stalinizm W Polsce Pdf. For copyright’s owner (DMCA) This page contains information about the book, but not the book itself. 1Quoted in Hanna Swida-Ziemba, “Stalinizm i spoleczenstwo polskie,” in Stalinizm, ed. For a review of this concept, see Andrzej Werblan, Stalinizm w Polsce. Andrzej Werblan, Stalinizm w Polsce (Warsaw, ), as cited by Jerzy Poksinski, “Sądownictwo wojskowe,” in Instytucje państwa totalitarnego, 7. Werblan.

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The “Jew-communism” stereotype endured in postwar Poland —56 [11] because Polish anti-communists saw Poland’s Soviet-controlled communist government as the fruition of prewar communist anti-Polish agitation and associated it with the Soviets’ appointment of Jews to positions of responsibility in the Polish government. It was described in intelligence reports as very loyal to the Soviets. Called “the first Polish work to develop on a large scale the concept of an organized Jewish conspiracy directly threatening the existing social structure,” [15] [16] [17] it describes a Warsaw of the future renamed Moszkopolis after its Jewish ruler.

At the end of the 19th century, Roman Dmowski ‘s National Democratic party characterized Poland’s Jews and other opponents of Dmowski’s party as internal enemies who were behind international conspiracies inimical to Poland and who were agents of disorder, disruption and socialism. According the Joanna Michlic”the image of the secularized and radically left-wing Jew who aims to take over [the country] and undermine the foundations of the Christian world” dates back to the first half of the 19th century, to the writings of Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz and Zygmunt Krasinis; by the end of the 19th century it has become part of the political discourse in Poland.

The emergence of the Soviet state was seen by many Poles as Russian imperialism in a new guise. Some soldiers and officers in the Polish eastern territories shared the conviction that Jews were enemies of the Polish nation-state and were collaborators with Poland’s enemies. Some of these troops treated all Jews as Bolsheviks.

Occasional instances of Jewish support for Bolshevism during the Polish—Soviet War served to heighten anti-Jewish sentiment. The Endeks called for reducing the numbers of Jews in the country and for an economic boycott launched in ; subsequently, outbreaks of violence occurred against Jews, particularly at universities.

While there was a limited audience for Endek rhetoric, it was supplemented by the much larger circulation enjoyed by Catholic Church publications, which increasingly referred to the communist threat and the alleged “Godlessness” of the Jews. One such Church publication, the newspaper Samoobrona Narodu “Self-Defense of the Nation,” which meant defense against Jewshad a circulation of over one million. However, a subsequent reclassification of how crime was recorded—which now included minor offenses—succeeded in reversing the trend, and Jewish criminal statistics showed an increase relative to the Jewish population by the s.

According to multiple sources, Jews were well represented in the Polish Communist Party. Out of fifteen leaders of the KPP central administration ineight were Jews. Throughout the whole interwar period, Jews constituted a very important segment of the Communist movement. In the larger cities, the percentage of Jews in the KPP often exceeded 50 percent and in smaller cities, frequently over 60 percent.

Given this background, a respondent’s statement that “in small cities like ours, almost all Communists were Jews,” does not appear to be a gross exaggeration. According to some bodies of research, voting patterns in Poland’s parliamentary elections in the s revealed that Jewish support for the communists was proportionally less than their representation in the total population.

The pro-Soviet communist party received most of its support from Belarusians whose separatism was backed by the Soviet Union. However, in terms of overall numbers, CPP was “the Jews’ least favorite political grouping” during the elections. Following the Soviet invasion of Polandresulting in the partition of Polish territory between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union USSRJewish communities in eastern Poland welcomed with some relief the Soviet occupation, which they saw as a “lesser of two evils” than openly antisemitic Nazi Germany.

Gross noted that “there were proportionately more communist sympathizers among Jews than among any other nationality in the local population”. Polish schools and other institutions were closed, Poles were dismissed from jobs of authority, often arrested and deported, and replaced with non-Polish personnel. Many Poles resented their change of fortunes because, before the war, Poles had a privileged position compared to other ethnic groups of the Second Republic.

Then, in the space of a few days, Jews and other minorities from within Poland mainly Ukrainians and Belorussians occupied newly vacant positions in the Soviet occupation government and administration—such as teachers, civil servants and engineers—positions that some claimed they had trouble achieving under the Polish government. Though some Jews had initially benefited from the effects of the Soviet invasion, this occupation soon began to strike at the Jewish population as well; independent Jewish organizations were abolished and Jewish activists were arrested.

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Hundreds of thousands of Jews who had fled to the Soviet sector were given a choice of Soviet citizenship or returning to the German occupied zone.

The majority chose the latter, and instead found themselves deported to the Soviet Union, where, ironically,would escape the Holocaust. The Soviet-backed communist government was as harsh towards non-communist Jewish cultural, political and social institutions as they were towards Polish, banning all alternative parties.

Among them were a number of Jewish communists who played a highly visible role in the unpopular communist government and its security apparatus.

He was personally assigned by Stalin first to Industry and than to Transportation ministries pplsce Poland. Minister Jakub Berman — Stalin’s right hand in Poland until — held the Political propaganda and Ideology portfolios.

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He was responsible for the largest and most notorious secret police in the history of the People’s Republic of Poland, the Ministry of Public Security UBemploying 33, permanent security officers, one for every Polish citizens. The Polish-American historian Marek Jan Chodakiewicz stressed that after the Soviet takeover of Poland in violence had developed amid postwar retribution and counter-retribution, exacerbated by the breakdown of law and order and a Polish anti-Communist insurgency.

He describes cases in which Jews cooperated with the Polish secret police, denouncing Poles and members of the Home Army. Chodakiewicz noted that some 3, to 6, Poles died in late s because of Jewish denunciations or were killed by Jews themselves.

The combination of the effects of the Holocaust and postwar antisemitism led to a dramatic mass emigration of Polish Jewry in the immediate postwar years.

Of the estimatedJews in Poland in of whomwere refugees from the Soviet Union, most on their way to the Westonly 90, remained a year later. The image of the Jew as a threatening outsider took on a new form as antisemitism was now linked to the imposition of communist rule in Poland, including rumors of massive collaboration of Jews with the unpopular new regime and the Soviet Union.

Of the fewer than 80, Jews who remained in Poland, many had political reasons for doing so.

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Consequently, — as noted by historian Michael C. The new communist order offered unprecedented opportunities as well as unforeseen dangers.

During Stalinismthe preferred Soviet policy was to keep sensitive posts in the hands of non-Poles. Grosswho argued that many Jews who worked for the communist party cut their ties with their culture — Jewish, Polish or Russian — and tried to represent the interests of international communism only, or at least that of the local communist government. It is difficult to assess when the Polish Jews who had volunteered to serve or remain in the postwar communist security forces began to realize, however, what Soviet Jews had realized earlier, that under Stalin, as Arkady Vaksberg put it: Julia Brystiger 5th Dept.

Anatol Fejgin 10th Dept. Inover 9, socialist and populist politicians were released from prison. These outbursts of antisemitic sentiment from both Polish society and within the rank and file of the ruling party spurred the exodus of some 40, Polish Jews between and Political turmoil of the late s—exemplified in the West by increasingly violent protests against the Vietnam War —was closely associated in Poland with the events of the Prague Spring which began on 5 Januaryraising hopes of democratic reforms among the intelligentsia.

The crisis culminated in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia on 20 August The campaign, which began inwas a well-guided response to the Six-Day War and the subsequent break-off by the Soviets of all diplomatic relations with Israel. Polish factory workers were forced to publicly denounce Zionism. However, the campaign did not resonate with the general public, because most Poles saw similarities between Israel’s fight for survival and Poland’s past struggles for independence.

Many Poles felt pride in the success of the Israeli military, which was dominated by Polish Jews. The slogan, “Our Jews beat the Soviet Arabs” [96] was very popular among the Poles, but contrary to the desire of the communist government. The government’s antisemitic policy yielded more successes the next year.

In Marcha wave of unrest among students and intellectuals, unrelated to the Arab-Israeli War, swept Poland the events became known as the March events. As historian Dariusz Stola notes, the anti-Jewish campaign combined century-old conspiracy theories, recycled antisemitic claims and classic communist propaganda.

Paradoxically, probably the most powerful slogan of the communist propaganda in March was the accusation that the Jews were zealous communists. They were blamed for a major part, if not all, of the crimes and horrors of the Stalinist period. The myth of Judeo-Bolshevism had been well known in Poland since the Russian revolution and the Polish-Bolshevik war ofyet its model deserves interest as a tool of communist propaganda.

This accusation exploited and developed the popular stereotype of Jewish communism to purify communism: The communist elites used the “Jews as Zionists” allegations to push for a purge of Jews from scientific and cultural institutions, publishing houses, and national television and radio stations. Stola also notes that one of the effects of the antisemitic campaign was to thoroughly discredit the communist government in the eyes of the public.

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According to Ferguson, “The entire Polish population adopted a negative attitude towards the Jews because of their blatant cooperation with the Bolsheviks and their hostility against non-Jews. Michlic and Laurence Weinbaum charge that post Polish historiography has seen a revival of “an ethnonationalist historical approach”. Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo—Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.

Similarly, the conspiracy theory of Jewish Communism implies that Jews have dominated the Communist movements in the world, and is related to The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory ZOGwhich asserts that Jews control world politics.

The Nazi Party in Germany and the German-American Bund in the United States propagated the anti-Semitic theory to their followers, sympathisers, and fellow travellers during the s. It can then be added to the pilgrim’s first name, e.

In some areas the title has bec This list of ethnic slurs compiles words that are, or have been, used ethnic slurs sorted by ethnicity. For the purposes of this list, ethnicity can be defined by either race, nationality or ethnicity.

Originally, this was simply an informal term for Aborigine, and was in fact used by Aboriginal people themselves until it started to be considered offensive in the s. In remoter areas, Aboriginal people still often refer to themselves quite neutrally as Blackfellas and whites as Whitefellas. Although Abo is still considered quite offensive by many, the pejorative boong is now more commonly used when the intent is deliberately to offend, as that word’s status as an insult is unequivocal.

From bung, to go The following is a list of religious slurs in the English language that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about adherents of a given religion or to refer to them in a derogatory critical or disrespectfulpejorative disapproving or contemptuousor insulting manner. Christians Bible beater a dysphemism for Christian fundamentalists; [1] It is also a slang term for an evangelizing Christian fundamentalist.

The term derives from preachers thumping their hands down on the Bible, or thumping the Bible itself, to emphasize a point during a sermon.

The term’s target domain is broad and can often extend to anyone engaged in a public show of religion, fundamentalist or not. The term is most commonly used in English-speaking countries. In the English language, the word nigger is a racial slur typically directed at black people.

The word originated in the 18th century as an adaptation of the Spanish negro, a descendant of the Latin adjective niger which means black. Accordingly, it began to disappear from popular culture, and its continued inclusion in classic works of literature has sparked controversy.

Because the term is considered extremely offensive, it is often referred to by the euphemism “N-word”. Jewish Communism can refer to: Florence Kate Upton’s Golliwogg in formal minstrel attire in The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls and a Golliwogg in The golliwog, golliwogg or golly is a black fictional character created by Florence Kate Upton that appears in children’s books in the late 19th century and usually depicted as a type of rag doll. It was reproduced, both by commercial and hobby toy-makers as a children’s toy called the “golliwog”, and had great popularity in the UK and Australia into the s.

The doll is characterised by black skin, eyes rimmed in white, clown lips and frizzy hair. Though home-made golliwogs were sometimes female, the golliwog was generally male. For this reason, in the period following World War II, the golliwog was seen, along with the teddy bear, as a suitable soft toy for a young boy.

The image of the doll has become the subject of controversy. Whilst some people see the doll as an innocuous toy,[1] its depiction of African people is claimed by others to be racist,[1] along with pickaninnies, minstrel The following is a list of ethnic slurs ethnophaulisms that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity, or to refer to them in a derogatory that is, critical or disrespectfulpejorative disapproving or contemptuousor otherwise insulting manner.

Some of the terms listed below such as “Gringo”, “Yank”, etc. For the purposes of this list, an ethnic slur is a term designed to insult others on the basis of race, ethnicity, or nationality.