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Without jeopardizing the method of frequency transposition according to which a given frequency is measured relative to the local frequencies generated by local oscillators very bascue stabilities, technical solutions are moving towards the frequency division, rsst ‘turns out to be very interesting, provided that the divider circuits: Both Q and Q outputs of the slave operator are partially looped on the two inputs R and S of the basic master operator Ma.
The operating frequency thus passes to 4. Van Der Wel et al. On this wiring diagram, there are two operators NOR, represented by the three transistors bascu,e by a dotted line and marked 8 and 9, and an OR operator consisting of the set of two transistors 10 and It is thus seen that the four OR gates, 61, 62, 71 and 72 issue, each of the signals to two operators NOR identical of the first and third stages.
Architecture des ordinateurs IUP GEII – informatique & télécommunications 1ère année
Kind code of ref document: However, firstly the frequency divider designed to work at very high frequencies such as 10 GHz, resulting in that the transistors are extremely small dimensions and even smaller grids and thus reach the limits of technology. The operators of the output signals are fed back. OR operators 61 and 71 are arranged on the vertical diagonal of the figure and constitutes the second stage of the divider by 2.
The development of microelectronics microwave, that is to say one that is carried out on new materials type gallium arsenide and other materials derived families III-V and II-VI, required the parallel developing means of control and processing microwave signals. Linear combination of atomic orbital-molecular orbital treatment of the deep defect level in a semiconductor: Figure 9 shows the circuit diagram of the latch according to the invention and sets of components which constitute elementary operators are surrounded by a dashed line for ease of identification.
The present invention rocker and frequency divider 2 is specified by the following claims. The complex operators Ma and Ma 2 are decided in Figure 8 by two dotted lines and the name of Ma. Applications the frequency dividers, for interfacial cage between the signals in GHz and the measurement and control circuits in MHz.
To facilitate comparison, Figure 8 and Figure 6, the same reference indices are preserved when they designate the same basic operators. An approximation must be made between the flip-flop of Figure 2 and that of Figure 6. The second advantage is that the functions OR and NOR are separated, and this advantage will be shown later.
It is that shown by Figure 5. These simplifications are made possible by redundancies between operators, which allowed not to have three floors of operators instead of four between the input and the output of the latch. For example, a microwave device on gallium arsenide are often associated circuits on silicon in said ECL technology.
OR operators 62 and 72 are disposed on the horizontal diagonal of FIG and constitutes the third stage of the divider by 2.
It’s that kind of scale that is used most frequently for the most efficient frequency dividers being made and the architecture used in the prior art, is shown in Figure 3.
Operators OR outputs 62 and 72 deliver signals Q and Q, further, the frequency is half of the input frequency on additional inputs E and E: The divider 2 according to the invention therefore appears to be essentially constituted by two complex operators Ma 1 and Ma 2, which control two elementary OR operators 62 and basscule Similarly, the two output OR operators are those which constitute the fourth stage of the divider by 2 in Figure 6.
Latch or phase detector circuit for DRAM data storage uses flip flop stage and cascaded NAND gates to give output depending on clock and dst state change phase. A frequency divider operating in the range 0 to 10 GHz, characterized in that it comprises at least a logic flip-flop according to any one of claims 1 to 5.
The present invention relates to a very fast logic flip-flop, whose structure has been studied in order to simplify the internal organization of the rocker and to improve performance, especially in the very high frequencies between 5 and 10 GHz.
Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. RSTT the flip-flop according to the invention was developed for the realization of a frequency divider by 2, characterized by a very wide band of operation since its operation has been checked between the continuous and the X-band that is ie 10 GHz. But by total optimization of the parameters of the circuit, and particularly the dimensioning of the transistors, with 0.
General purpose divide by two logic circuit – has four similar gates and logic inverter composed of transistor stages. It also relates to the application of the logic flip-flop to a frequency divider by 2, operating the DC to 10 GHz in frequency, this frequency divider being designed in particular in the form of integrated circuit on gallium arsenide. The Esc one slave operator complex consists of elementary operators 22, 32 and bascupe.
Logique séquentielle/Mémoires et bascules — Wikiversité
These operators are looped between them, they receive complementary signals T and T, and deliver output signals Q and Q of quite comparable to the flip-flop of Figure 2. So there is redundancy between the first and third floor, it is possible to remove the third floor to compact the rocker: It is therefore necessary to interface the part of the system that works in the microwave generated by circuits on gallium arsenide, and the part of the system that works with circuits made of silicon, and therefore to a division of frequencies to lower GHz to MHz.
Moreover, it is necessary that the selected logical scheme is compatible with the most advanced techniques, especially regarding the dimensioning of the components and their implementation on fast materials of the family of gallium arsenide and compounds III- V. The Q and Q outputs are called complementary. Indeed, in a microwave system are generally associated means or control and processing elements in the form of integrated circuits working at maximum frequencies of the order of a few hundred MHz.
This circuit is used in the interfaces between the very high frequencies that are measured in GHz and the monitoring or analysis systems operating at lower frequencies that are measured in MHz. Finally the OR operator 72 of the fourth stage simultaneously delivers a signal to the NOR operator of the first stage 21 and the NOR operator 32 of the third floor.
By way of example and comparison, the frequency dividers of the prior art currently operate at maximum operating frequencies from 4. Indeed, when the operating frequencies of a microelectronic device are measured in GHz, the dimensioning of the components, that is to say for example the gate length of a field effect transistor which takes importance n ‘ is significant since in some cases it is unclear achieve sufficiently fine grids, due to the limits imposed by the masking techniques, although this example is cited only to show the importance of compatibility between the schematic and wiring its realization.
Bascule rst pdf
The divisors of the best performing aperiodic frequencies are obtained by bascuule a so-called master-slave RS flip-flop shown in Figure 1. Logic bascjle operating from dc to 10 ghz, and frequency divider comprising this latch. The frequency divider according to the invention, that is to say also the flip-flop which is the basis of the embodiment of a divider has been designed with a dual purpose.
The latch according to the invention is organized into three stages: Country of ref document: This is what results is covered by the frequency divider according to the invention. In the field of the periodic frequency division, very interesting results have been obtained in the band 5 to 15 GHz, using structures using planar Gunn diodes.