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Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.

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Cataphora across sentences is often used for rhetorical effect.

Anaphora (linguistics)

Mental models and the interpretation of anaphora. So check this out: For example, the referent of the phrase the Queen using an emphatic definite articlenot the less specific a Queenbut also not the more specific Queen Elizabeth must be determined by the context of the utterance, which would identify the identity of the queen in question. Figures of speech Pragmatics Semantics.

There are many theories that attempt to prove how anaphors are related and trace back to their antecedents, with centering theory Grosz, Joshi, and Weinstein being one of them. This page was last edited on 3 Julyat Finding the right gadget was a real hassle.

Usually, an anaphoric expression is a proform or some other kind of deictic contextually-dependent expression. Examples [ edit ] Other examples of the same type of cataphora are: The term anaphor is used in a special way in the generative grammar tradition of Chomsky and his followers. A Linguistic Analysis of Hypertexts. If you want themthere are cookies in the kitchen.


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Anaphora is an important concept for different reasons and on different levels: In this sentence, the pronoun he the cataphor appears earlier than the noun John the postcedent that it refers to.

After he had received his orders, the soldier left the barracks. Any time a anaphoar expression e.

So, just finding a pronoun does not mean you found an anaphor or cataphor. But in 2they absolutely cannot!

Anaphora (linguistics) – Wikipedia

A proform is a cataphor when it points to its right toward its postcedent. In complement anaphora cases, however, the anaphor refers to something ahaphora is not yet present in the discourse, since the pronoun’s referent has not been formerly introduced, including the case of ‘everything but’ what has been introduced.

After squaring both sides, we arrive at the following: The second thing to notice is that the following two sentences have different coreference properties: In some cases, anaphora may refer not to its usual antecedent, but to its complement set.

Before we get too far, there are limits to what anaphors can refer to. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.


The use of the term anaphor in this narrow sense is unique to generative grammar, and in particular, to the traditional binding theory. The second thing to notice is that the following two sentences have different coreference properties:.

Strict within-sentence cataphora is highly restricted in the sorts of structures it can appear within, generally restricted to a preceding subordinate clause. A further distinction is drawn between endophoric and exophoric reference. The set of ice-cream-eating-children in example b is introduced into the discourse, but then the pronoun they refers to the set of non-ice-cream-eating-children, a set which has not been explicitly mentioned.

So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors:. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Volume 20, Issue 1 Pp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Resource Book for Students: It can build suspense and provide a description.

Pragmatics Semantics Semiotics Syntactic relationships Tasks of natural language processing. Broadly speaking, an anaphor is a word that refers back to a previous word.

Corpus linguistics at work.