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Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

However, the first word appearstimes in total, while the latter, the closest in frequency, only appears 15, times. During its birth and growth, Spanish was not the only language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. Because of their size, manual efforts of transcription and annotation have made sense.

Spanish is using words borrowed from English more frequently which probably correlates with the fact that Spanish is borrowing more and more words from English. Theoretically, the best Spanish would be that which draws the most lexical units from classical Spanish literary authors, specially from the Golden Age 16 and 17 th centuriesthe Silver Age from up to the so called literary generation of or the best authors of the last part of the 20 th Century. The pre-Roman languages are believed to have left a substrate influence, albeit minimal, on the subsequent Latin used in the Peninsula.

As apparent in Figure 3we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before In the 19 th and 20 th century, Ancient Greek, as the first internationally prestigious language in history Bergua Caverowas often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of science and technology.

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The reasons why we are focusing on written language are several. These languages together with Basque, a language isolate spoken in the northern part of the Peninsula, occupied and sometimes shared the geographical space of the Peninsula.

Written texts are already transcribed and in this case, digitizedwhich makes them easier to be processed computationally. National languages are therefore almost always semi-artificial constructs and occasionally, like modern Hebrew, virtually invented.

However, as we have showed, there is a reason for that: Some of our results might seem counterintuitive at first, the first one being that Greek is the most common source language for Spanish loanwords.

Espasa-Calpe Argentina, None of the loanword donor languages and none of the peaks, llbro we have seen, were fortuitous.

Whereas the amount of data to be processed did not impose a limitation by itself, although it was challenging at times, decisions were made for practical reasons that might have impacted the results. In order to draw stronger conclusions, two elements are needed. Even before the use of technology, Spanish philologists were well aware of the influence of French on the Spanish lexicon.

1. Introduction

When looking at the donor languages for these lemmas, shown in Figure 1we found that Greek and French were the most prolific languages in donating lexical items to Spanish: The structure of this article is the following: After the 18 th Century, and as we will expand in the following section, we see a small yet continuous upwards trend in the use of loanwords.

Cambridge University Press, Order and structure are lost, and the original text cannot be reconstructed.

If an innovation becomes entrenched enough, it may end up being conventionalized as part of language A. We decided on Latin, Iberian substrate and Arabic as forming it, although some linguists and philologists might disagree on the latter.

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In section 4, we describe our study in detail. Other Latin-based dialects Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese and Navarro-Aragonese were also becoming independent, full-fledged languages during the 10 th and 11 th centuries Lapesa This need, especially apparent in cultured texts, such as the ones contained in HathiTrust and Google Ngrams, far from stopping, keeps increasing as political and cultural exchanges, trade and globalization affect the shape of human communication and make languages more porous to external influences.

A small state can never bring to complete perfection within its territory the various branches of production.

Therefore, the fact the we see words borrowed from other languages is not necessarily the result of personal or societal bilingualism but of established borrowing processes. Towards a historical-materialistic approach to the history of linguistics’ en Ideologies of Language ed.

In general terms, this control means that good written Spanish is to use as much vocabulary from Spanish as possible and, in consequence, the fewest amount of loanwords.

Each of these pages contains a frequency map for each of the individual tokens found in an automated part-of-speech POS tagging task of the text in the page. In the 15 edpaola and 16 th centuries, Spanish expanded to many sites overseas such as the Canary Islands, the American, and the Philippines as a result of the work of settlers, soldiers, and missionaries.

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Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche. This progressive use of more loanwords after the 18 th Century shows the pressures of the current times. Alianza Editorial, ,