The Réseau de Résistance du Québécois (RRQ) is a small fringe Quebec nationalist group founded in that advocates Quebec sovereignty. In , the RRQ claimed a membership of people. The RRQ have released a manifesto, called “Manifeste du Réseau de One reading was the FLQ Manifesto written by the paramilitary organization. 5 oct. , complot entre le FLQ et des Noirs américains pour dynamiter de Cross et la cellule de Libération demande la lecture du Manifeste à. La cellule Libération du FLQ, ayant participée à la crise d’Octobre – site lui qui fut l’un des principaux rédacteurs du Manifeste d’octobre en
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It conducted a number of attacks between and  which totalled ddu violent incidents and killed eight people and injured many more. Public outcry and a federal crackdown subsequently ended the crisis and resulted in a drastic loss of support, with a small number of FLQ members being granted refuge in Cuba.
FLQ members practised propaganda of the deed and issued declarations that called for a socialist insurrection against oppressors identified with “Anglo-Saxon” imperialism,  ru overthrow of the Quebec governmentthe independence of Quebec from Canada and the establishment of a Fflq Quebecer “workers’ society”. It gained the support of many left-leaning students, teachers and academics up towho engaged in public strikes in solidarity with FLQ during the October crisis.
This public support largely ended after the group announced they had executed Ud, in a public communique that ended with an insult of the victim. Nonetheless, they continued to receive the support of other far-left organizations such as the Communist Party of Canada and the League for Socialist Action.
The KGB, which had established contact with the FLQ before [ citation needed ]later forged documents to portray them as a CIA false flag operation [ citation needed ]a story that gained limited traction among academic sources before declassified Soviet archives revealed the ruse [ manifestte needed ]. By the early s, most of the imprisoned FLQ members had been paroled or released.
Members and sympathizers of the group were called “Felquistes” French pronunciation: Some of the members were organized and trained by Georges Schoetersa Belgian revolutionary. Various cells emerged over time: The last two of these cells were involved in what became known as the October Crisis.
Le manifeste du FLQ (Segment) | CVE
From tothe FLQ committed over violent actions, including bombings, bank hold-ups, kidnappings, at least three killings by FLQ bombs and two killings by gunfire. In Revolutionary Strategy and the Role of the Avant-Garde was prepared by the FLQ, outlining their long-term strategy of successive waves of robberies, violence, bombings, and kidnappings, culminating in revolution.
The history of the FLQ is sometimes described as a series of “waves”.
The ideology was based on an extreme form of Quebec nationalism that denounced Anglo exploitation and control of Quebec, combined with Marxist-Leninist ideas and arguments. This group eventually broke up, forming the FLQ. The group was recruited among various sources, eventually recruiting one Mario Bachand.
The FLQ commenced their attacks on March 7, Some of their more notable crimes include bombing a railway by which then—Prime Minister of Canada John Diefenbaker had arranged to travel within the week. By June 1,eight members of the Duu were arrested in a surprise raid. A group of six individuals, two of whom were brothers of FLQ members arrested in Robert Hudon and Jean Gagnoncommenced a series fq crimes in Quebec over a period between September 26,and April 9, Most of these fkq were also released by This group attempted to di on training, particularly in St.
A botched gun robbery August 29,resulted in two deaths. A number of other members of the FLQ were arrested as well.
This also combined several other pro-sovereignty groups. This may have led to a more socialist FLQ attitude. It translates to “The Hit Knock “. A year-old FLQ member, Jean Corbo, was killed by his manifesge explosive, and a year-old female office worker died during the FLQ bombing of the shoe factory Lagrenade. In Septemberthe fql were extradited to Canada. Within a year, this group of Felquistes had exploded manideste bombs. The various members of the group were arrested by May fl, After another series of bombings, on September 28,they bombed the home of Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau.
After the bombing, police concluded that the bomb was placed in the toilet maniceste inspectors could not find it. The RCMP had intercepted intelligence relating to the planned riots, and prevented excessive damage. These new FLQ members bought two other houses, prepared their plans, and stocked sufficient equipment for their upcoming actions. The group split into two over what plans should be taken, but were reunited during the crisis itself. The operation was so successful that Canada’s prime minister believed that the CIA had conducted operations in Canada.
Laporte was coming from a meeting with others where they had discussed the demands of the FLQ. After the demands amnifeste denied, Pierre Laporte was immediately killed by the FLQ although it is still not known how the FLQ knew of the decision so quickly. In the following days, FLQ leaders held meetings to increase public support for the cause. Consequently, a general strike involving students, teachers and professors resulted in the closure of most French-language secondary and post-secondary academic institutions.
On October 15,more than 3, students attended a protest rally in favour of the FLQ. Demonstrations of public support influenced subsequent government actions.
On October 17, callers to a radio station announced that Laporte had been murdered and divulged the location of a map which led to the discovery of his body. As part of its Manifestothe FLQ stated: Canada’s Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeauin his statement to the press during the October Manifesye, admitted that the radicalism occurring in Quebec at this time had bred out of social unease due to imperfect legislation.
However, despite this admission, Trudeau declared in his statement to the press that in order to deal with the unruly radicals or “revolutionaries,” the federal government would invoke the War Measures Actthe only time the country used these powers during peacetime. Invoking the War Measures Act was a politically risky move for Trudeau because the Act overrode fundamental rights and privileges enumerated in the common law and in the Canadian Bill dh Rights ; therefore, there was a strong possibility that Trudeau might have lost popular support among Quebec voters.
However, this did not occur. In an impromptu interview with Tim Ralfe and Peter Reilly on the steps of Parliament, Pierre Trudeau, responding to a question of how extreme his implementation of the War Measures Act would be, Trudeau answered, “Well, just watch me. Early in Decemberpolice discovered the location of the kidnappers holding James Cross. His release was negotiated and on December 3,five of the FLQ members were granted their request for safe passage to Cuba by the Government of Canada after approval by Fidel Castro.
As a result of the invocation of the War Measures Act, civil liberties were suspended. By December d,police had arrested persons with suspected ties to the FLQ. Some detainees were released within duu, while others were held for up to 21 days. Manlfeste persons who were detained mahifeste initially denied access to legal counsel.
Of the people who were arrested, were eventually released without being charged. In late Glq, four weeks after the kidnappers of James Cross were found, Paul Rose and the kidnappers and murderers of Pierre Laporte were found hiding in a country farmhouse. They were tried and convicted for kidnapping and murder.
In Julypolice arrested and manifeset a sixth person in connection with the Cross kidnapping. Nigel Barry Hamer, a British radical socialist and FLQ sympathizer, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 12 months in jail.
Police deterrence and flagging public support contributed to the decline of the FLQ. The antiterrorism unit arrested nearly two dozen FLQ operatives in 13 months. The waves of arrests undoubtedly had a deterring effect on any would-be FLQ supporters. The support and political capacity of maniifeste FLQ changed drastically during the s. The general public overwhelmingly supported the emergency powers and the presence of the military in Quebec.
Laporte’s murder marked a crossroads in the political history of the FLQ. It helped sway public opinion towards more conventional forms of political participation and drove up popular support for the PQ. The rise of the PQ attracted both active and would-be participants away from the dangerous activities of the FLQ.
In justifying his decision he described the FLQ as a “shock group” whose continued activities would only play into the hands of the forces of repression against which they were no match.
Those members of the FLQ who had fled began returning to Canada from late untiland most received light sentences for their offences. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Some of this article’s listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Active measuresRevolutionary terror in the Soviet Unionand Russian influence operations in Canada.
McClelland and Stewart, Retrieved 2 April Public Violence in Canada.
Le manifeste du FLQ (Segment)
Unanswered questions remain 45 years later”. Managing Terrorism and Insurgency: Regeneration, Recruitment and Attrition. Montreal Gazette, March 9, Retrieved 11 April manifeset Montreal Gazette, April 1, Montreal Gazette, April 13, Montreal Gazette, April 22, Montreal Gazette, May 21, Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 13 August